At a 2019 rally for commanders of Iran’s {powerful} Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps, Ebrahim Raisi, the conservative head of the nation’s judicial system on the time, vowed to dismember corrupt Iranians and praised the Guards for capturing down an American drone.

“We won’t solely reduce off the fingers however chop off the arms of the corrupt,” Mr. Raisi mentioned on the time, in accordance with movies on Iranian media, including that the downing of the drone had helped shift the nation’s temper “to defiance as an alternative of negotiations.”

Now Mr. Raisi, a 60-year-old hard-line cleric and shut ally of the nation’s supreme chief, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, has been elected president after a marketing campaign extensively considered as engineered to make sure his victory.

For the previous 18 months, the president-elect has served as the pinnacle of Iran’s judiciary, though rights teams say he has a well-documented file of grave human rights violations over the previous three many years, each earlier than and through his time on the helm of the judiciary. He has been accused of taking part in a task in sending hundreds of political prisoners to their deaths within the Eighties, and in deadly crackdowns on antigovernment protests in 2009 and 2019.

The USA and the European Union have each imposed sanctions on Mr. Raisi over his human rights file, a scenario that will make him the primary Iranian president to take the world stage at venues just like the annual United Nations Normal Meeting underneath the cloud of such a designation.

“Because the age of 20, he has been issuing execution orders and jail sentences,” mentioned Hadi Ghaemi, the director of the Heart for Human Rights in Iran, an unbiased New York-based group. “In his tenure as judiciary chief, he has led an in depth repression marketing campaign,” Mr. Ghaemi added. “He has no governing expertise, however very deep ties to the safety and intelligence equipment.”

Mr. Raisi is considered because the most probably successor to the omnipotent, 82-year-old supreme chief — who has the ultimate phrase on all necessary issues of state. And his election as president could possibly be a serious step in his ascent to the highest job.

However Mr. Raisi’s victory will include an asterisk within the eyes of many Iranians who boycotted the election as a protest. A conservative council of clerics near the supreme chief, answerable for vetting presidential candidates, eradicated all different rivals who may have posed a critical problem forward of Friday’s voting.

His victory may additionally pose a clumsy predicament for the Biden administration, as a result of he has been blacklisted underneath American sanctions, which typically would prohibit any dealings with him. These sanctions have been imposed by President Donald J. Trump in a 2019 government order, which Mr. Biden has not repealed.

Though america has no formal ties with Iran and wouldn’t interact immediately with Mr. Raisi as president, the 2 international locations are holding talks by way of intermediaries in Vienna about reviving Iran’s 2015 nuclear cope with world powers.

Mr. Raisi has deep ties to Iran’s clerical hierarchy and enjoys sturdy help from the safety equipment, together with the elite Revolutionary Guards power. He’s anticipated to face by the supreme chief’s hard-line conservative insurance policies.

He has mentioned that his priorities will likely be combating corruption, enhancing folks’s livelihoods and offering mass Covid-19 vaccinations. He has additionally indicated a willingness to revive the 2015 nuclear deal, one thing that might result in the elimination of financial sanctions which have weighed down Iran’s economic system.

“We’ll put nationwide pursuits first,” Mr. Raisi mentioned in an interview with Iran’s state tv. “We consider that the oppressive sanctions have to be lifted and no effort needs to be spared.”

Mr. Raisi’s opponents fear that he’ll regularly enhance social oppression and additional restrict entry to the web and well-liked apps like Instagram and Clubhouse. Outstanding journalists and activists have mentioned they concern widespread arrests as soon as he takes workplace.

A few of his critics, nevertheless, are extra optimistic, speculating that he may maintain again on imposing restrictions to keep away from scary unrest.

Mr. Raisi, who will take workplace in August, started his political profession as an ideological prosecutor and choose, then climbed the ranks to achieve the nation’s prime judicial workplace.

He was born the son of a cleric within the non secular metropolis of Mashhad in japanese Iran. He attended a Shiite theological seminary within the metropolis of Qom at age 15, and opponents have criticized him for not having a proper nonreligious training past sixth grade. His black turban symbolizes that he’s thought of a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.

He rode the coattails of the Islamic Revolution that toppled the monarchy in 1979 by displaying ideological loyalty and a willingness to go to nice lengths to make sure the Islamic theocracy’s survival. He served as a prosecutor in a number of cities, and in 1985 turned the deputy prosecutor of Tehran, ultimately rising to the judiciary’s prime ranks.

All through Mr. Raisi’s rise to energy, Iranian and worldwide rights teams have accused him of significant violations — a number of of them cited within the 2019 U.S. sanctions order.

In 1988, when he was Tehran’s deputy prosecutor basic, Mr. Raisi was implicated in one of many bloodiest episodes within the historical past of the Islamic Republic. He sat on a four-man committee that despatched about 5,000 imprisoned authorities opponents to their deaths, in accordance with Amnesty Worldwide, Human Rights Watch and different organizations. Many have been executed in jail though they’d not been sentenced to loss of life, in accordance with rights teams and family members of the lifeless.

Mr. Raisi addressed these accusations in 2018, saying that the loss of life sentences had been issued by a choose and upheld by the Supreme Court docket, in accordance with Iranian information stories. He mentioned the accusations of rights violations amounted to “rating settling” in opposition to him and the supreme chief on the time, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

“It’s my pleasure to have fought the wave of opposition, monetary corruption and theft,” Mr. Raisi has mentioned, in accordance with the stories.

The American sanctions order mentioned Mr. Raisi was additionally concerned within the regime’s brutal crackdown on Iran’s Inexperienced Motion protests that adopted Iran’s chaotic 2009 presidential election.

A decade later, he was accused of failing to analyze the deadly shootings of tons of of peaceable unarmed demonstrators throughout 2019 nationwide protests over an increase in fuel costs. Not less than 7,000 protesters have been arrested, tortured and sentenced to harsh jail phrases by the judiciary that Mr. Raisi led, rights teams say.

The American choice to impose sanctions accused Mr. Raisi of “administrative oversight over the executions of people who have been juveniles on the time of their crime and the torture and different merciless, inhuman or degrading therapy or punishment of prisoners in Iran, together with amputations.”

Regardless of the weighty accusations in opposition to him, Mr. Raisi has many supporters who reward his crackdown on corruption as judiciary chief, together with placing on trial a outstanding choose who was the deputy minister of justice. He has portrayed himself as a Robin Hood of types, prepared to seek out {powerful} political figures for monetary wrongdoing within the curiosity of serving to the oppressed and injecting hope into society.

Throughout an unsuccessful presidential bid in opposition to Hassan Rouhani in 2017, Mr. Raisi introduced himself as an anticorruption hero and rallied help among the many poor and the pious by pounding away on the theme of inequality.

From 2016 to 2017, he ran Astan Quds Razavi, overseeing an enormous, rich non secular basis that features a holy shrine, a charity wing and a holding firm with dozens of profitable companies. Astan is immediately underneath the management of Mr. Khamenei and is believed to be one in every of his most important sources of wealth.

Mr. Raisi is married to Jamileh Alamolhoda, the daughter of a spiritual hard-liner, Ayatollah Ahmad Alamolhoda. Her father, who leads Friday prayers in Mashhad, was appointed by Mr. Khamenei and has enforced ultraconservative rules within the japanese province of Khorasan, together with a ban on reside musical performances and on ladies’s driving bicycles.

Mr. Raisi’s spouse is an affiliate professor of training at a outstanding college, they usually have two grownup daughters — one a sociologist, the opposite a physicist — and two grandchildren.

Ali Vaez, the Iran director for the Worldwide Disaster Group, referred to as Mr. Raisi a “examined and dependable apparatchik” to Mr. Khamenei who wouldn’t problem the supreme chief’s insurance policies or intrude along with his legacy.

“Raisi owes his complete political profession to Khamenei,” Mr. Vaez mentioned.

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